Phosphate Standard


Phosphate flame retardants (PFRs) have been proposed as an alternative to brominated flame retardants and are increasingly used as flame retardants and plasticizers in various applications such as building materials, textiles, and electrical and electronic equipment.

However, with the introduction of organophosphate esters (OPEs) into the environment, the environmental problems caused by them have gradually attracted the attention of environmental scientists and become another hot spot in the research of new organic pollutants.

To aid in the study of these compounds, Alfa Chemistry provides a number of PFRs for use as reference standards.

OPEs in The Environment

OPEs enter the environment and are widely present in air, dust, water, soil, sediment and sludge. Numerous studies have focused on the occurrence of OPEs in indoor and aquatic environments, as humans have greater access to both substrates.

In addition, the broad physicochemical properties of OPEs lead to their diverse environmental behaviors, including phase distribution, migration, and degradation, which influence the pathways and levels of human exposure to these chemicals.

OPEs in the environmentOPEs in the environment [1]

Toxicity of OPEs

Given the structural similarities of OPEs to organophosphorus pesticides, uncertainty about their toxicity to biota and potential risks to environmental health has drawn increasing attention. Neurotoxicity, developmental and reproductive toxicity, and endocrine disrupting effects have been reported.

A review assessed the risks to surface water and sediments of 11 OPEs, including TCEP, TDCP, TCPP, TPhP, TCrP, TnBP, TiBP, TBEP, TEHP, EHDPP, and TEP. The results show that many compartments in the study area are exposed to ecological risks of some highly toxic OPEs, and the ecological risks of sediments appear to be more severe comparatively. [1]

Toxicological data of typical OPEs and calculated PNEC in surface water and sediment

Compound Biota Endpoint Exposure time Toxic effect Effect concentration (mg/L) RQmax (surface water) RQmax (sediment)
TCEPZebrafishLC5096 hmortality2020.0060.03
TDCPZebrafishLC5096 hmortality0.420.482.03
TCPPZebrafishLC5096 hmortality13.51.95.94
TPhPZebrafishLC5096 hmortality1.0260.090.47
TCrPDaphnia magnaEC5048 hmortality0.310.050.16
TnBPZebrafishLC5096 hmortality7.820.050.04
TiBPDaphnia magnaEC5048 hmortality110.110.06
TBEPZebrafishLC5096 hmortality3.341.380.02
TEHPDaphnia magnaEC5048 hmortality0.740.02< 0.001
EHDPPDaphnia magnaEC5048 hmortality0.310.150.57
TEPZebrafishLC5096 hmortality1250< 0.0010.01
TPrPZebrafishLC5096 hmortality252< 0.0010.01
TDBPZebrafishLOEC5 dmortality1.42--

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  1. Xin Wang, et al. (2020). "A review of organophosphate flame retardants and plasticizers in the environment: Analysis, occurrence and risk assessment," Science of The Total Environment 731, 139071.
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