Antimony flame retardants are a kind of additive flame retardants. When used in combination with halogen-based flame retardants, the performance of the flame retardants can be greatly improved. Alfa Chemistry can provide customers with high-quality antimony flame retardant products with various detailed requirements through various production processes.
Antimony trioxide (Sb2O3), colloidal antimony pentoxide (Sb2O5) and sodium antimonate (Na3SbO4) are the main products of antimony flame retardants. Among them, Sb2O3, a typical additive inorganic flame retardant, is widely used.
There are many different grades, such as ordinary grade, superfine grade, high purity white grade, etc. The particle size and chemical reactivity of antimony flame retardants are determined by processing conditions.
Sb2O3 first melts during the combustion period, with a melting point of 665°C. A protective film is formed on the surface of the material to isolate the air, and the combustion temperature is reduced through an internal endothermic reaction. At high temperature, Sb2O3 is oxidized, diluting the oxygen concentration in the air, thereby achieving flame retardancy effect.
Flame-retardant mechanism of antimony flame retardant in PP-based composites 
Sb2O3 is mainly used for the flame retardant of plastic products, synthetic resins and textile fabrics, and can also be used as a flame retardant for rubber, wood and fibers.
Halogen-free antimony compounds have little flame retardant effect on their own, but when used with halogen-containing organic compounds, they form a very effective antimony/halogen flame retardant synergistic system.
Regarding its own toxicity, a large number of studies have shown that antimony-containing flame retardants are not very toxic or cause cancer. The Sb2O3 toxicity test results are shown in the table below.
|Severe inhalation toxicity (tested with rats)
|LD50 > 34.6g/kg
|Severe contact skin toxicity (tested with rats)
|LD50 > 20.0g/kg
|Eye irritation (stimulated with rats) without rinsing eyes; rinsing eyes for four seconds
|Very severe if eyes are not rinsed; relatively severe if eyes are rinsed after 4 s of contact.
|One-time skin irritation (tested with rats)
|Skin allergy (test on human)
|No allergies found
|One-time skin test (on humans)
|No irritants found
In addition, the antimony-bromine flame retardant has the problem of a large amount of smoke. The current effective suppression method is the antimony-based composite flame retardant or the ultra-fine treatment of antimony oxide.
Sb2O3 For Consumer Electronics Applications
Electronic equipment components composed of polymer materials are easily ignited due to their vulnerability to flames. In this study, the researchers produced flame-retardant nanocomposites by enhancing halogen-free inorganic additives for use in components of electronic devices. The results show that magnesite/hydromagnesite and Sb2O3 have a synergistic effect, effectively reducing the flammability of ABS composites to UL94/V-0 rating. 
UL 94-V testing results of ABS and ABS composites 
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