Brominated Flame Retardant

Proposed flame retardant mechanism

Brominated flame retardants (BFR) Have the advantages of high flame retardant efficiency, low price, less addition, and good compatibility with resin materials. Alfa Chemistry provides you an extensive catalog of brominated flame retardants.

Classification And Typical Products

  • Added brominated flame retardants: Mainly include decabromodiphenyl ether (DBDPO), tetrabromobisphenol A bis (2,3-dialkylpropyl) ether (TBAB), octabromodiphenyl ether (OBDPO, discontinued), etc.
  • Reactive brominated flame retardants: Mainly include tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA), 2,4,6-tribromophenol, etc.
  • Polymer brominated flame retardants: Mainly include brominated polystyrene, brominated epoxy, tetrabromobisphenol A carbonate oligomer, etc.

Flame Retardant Mechanism of BFR

BFR works by interfering with the combustion cycle in the gas phase. Most BFRs decompose at 200°C~300°C. During the decomposition, by capturing the free radicals generated by the degradation reaction of polymer materials, the chain reaction of combustion is delayed or terminated. The released HBr is a kind of incombustible gas, which can cover the surface of the material and play a role in blocking the combustible gas on the surface.

Gas phase flame retardant mechanism Gas phase flame retardant mechanism


Common brominated flame retardants and their characteristics and uses are summarized in the following table.

Decabromodiphenyl ether (DBDPO)White powder, theoretical bromine content 83.3%, melting point >300°C, insoluble in water, methanol, acetone and other solvents, slightly soluble in toluene.Mainly used for PO, PS, ABS, PET, polyphenylene, PA unsaturated polyester, phenolic plastic and other products.
Tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA)White powder, bromine content 58.7%, melting point 181°C, insoluble in water, soluble in organic solvents such as acetone, methanol, ethanol and glacial acetic acid.Mainly used in PC, epoxy resin, unsaturated polyester, polyurethane, etc.; as an additive flame retardant, it can also be used in PS, ABS, etc., and can be used in conjunction with Sb2O3 to improve flame retardancy.
1,2 Bis(2,4,6-Tribromophenoxy)ethane (BTPE)It is an additive flame retardant, white crystalline powder, melting point 223-225°C, bromine content 69.7%, soluble in p-xylene and dichloroethane, insoluble in water, methyl acetone, benzene, etc. at room temperature.Mainly used for PS, PO, ABS, PSU, PES and PU flame retardant, especially suitable for light-colored or bright-colored products sensitive to the release of trace acid gases during processing.
Tetrabromophthalic anhydride (TBPA)White powder with bromine content of 68.9%.It can be used as both reactive flame retardant and additive flame retardant, and is often used in the preparation of unsaturated polyester.

Research Information

Flame Retardant Synergy

Brominated flame retardant and antimony series (Sb2O3 or Sb2O5) are used in combination. For example, Forozan Gholamian et al. synthesized Sb2O3 nanostructures and brominated compounds and investigated their effect on the flame retardancy of polymer matrices (PMMA, ABS, PS, etc.). The results show that the thermal decomposition of the nanocomposites shifts to higher temperatures due to the synergistic effect between Sb2O3 and brominated compounds.

Schematic diagram of physical barrier formation and TG curve of compositesSchematic diagram of physical barrier formation and TG curve of composites [1]

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  1. Forozan Gholamian, et al. (2013). "Synergistic Effect between Sb2O3 Nanostructure and Brominated Compound on the Flame Retardant Properties of the Polymeric Matrixes," High Temp. Mater. Proc. 32(2), 125-132.
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