Phosphorus and phosphorus compounds have long been used as flame retardants with the advantages of low smoke, non-toxicity, low halogen, and no halogen, etc. Alfa Chemistry is committed to providing you with an extensive catalog of phosphorus flame retardants (PFR).
PFRs generally involve two modes of action, including condensed-phase and gas-phase mechanisms. When PFR burns, it generates phosphoric acid, metaphosphoric acid, polymetaphosphoric acid, etc., which are covered on the surface of the resin to promote the carbonization of the plastic surface to form a carbon film. The polymetaphosphoric acid is covered in a viscous liquid state on the surface of the plastic. The solid or liquid membrane prevents the escape of free radicals and keeps out oxygen.
In addition, PFRs are also a free radical scavenger. Using mass spectrometry technology, it was found that any phosphorus-containing compounds have PO· formed when the polymer is burned. It can combine with the hydrogen atoms in the flame area to suppress the flame.
Flame retardant mechanism of PFR 
Flame Retardant Polymer Nanocomposites
Combining nanomaterials with different geometries with conventional flame retardants, either chemically or physically, can enable the resulting polymer nanocomposites with tunable flame retardancy and mechanical properties. For example, C60 is used in PP in combination with a P/N-containing intumescent flame retardant (IFR) for better thermal and flame retardancy in a research. The presence of PDBPP precludes the aggregation of C60 particles and facilitates the dispersion of C60-d-PDBPP in the PP matrix. The improved fire performance is due to the radical trapping effect of C60 and the formation of a dense carbon layer by PDBPP during combustion. 
Schematic representation of dendrimer-like oligomeric intumescent flame retardant bridged with C60, C60-d-PDBPP 
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